Volume List  / Volume 10 (4)



DOI: 10.7708/ijtte.2020.10(4).07

10 / 4 / 482-493 Pages


Tate Nalo - Urban Development & Housing, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh, India -

Sudipa Chatterjee - Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India -

Sudeshna Mitra - Global Road Safety Facility, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA -


Drivers’ behavior in a two-lane highway is more unprecedented as they tend to overtake at a higher speed due to undivided lanes. Also, often there are significant changes in driving speed along the horizontal curves because of the opposing traffic flow. Such variation in speed increases the likelihood of accidents on a two-lane road. In addition to that, the mix of different vehicle class often influences risky overtaking at the horizontal curves even in the absence of adequate sight distance. Keeping that in mind, the primary aim of this research was framed to obtain insight about the influence of road geometric features on operating speed and impact of speed dispersion on accidents along the horizontal curves in mixed traffic operation. The study indicates that beside road geometric features, operating speed along the horizontal curves is also influenced by traffic composition. Interestingly, it was observed that different vehicle class reacted differently while traversing a horizontal curve. Moreover, it was observed that the dispersion of speed had a significant impact on the accident counts at the horizontal curves. The insights from the study could be useful for designing of appropriate countermeasures to control the speed and reduce severe accident at horizontal curves.

Download Article

Number of downloads: 706


Abbas, S.K.S.; Adnan, M.A.; Endut, I.R. 2011. Exploration of 85th percentile operating speed model on horizontal curve: a case study for two-lane rural highways, Procedia-Social and behavioral sciences 16: 352-363.


Abdelwahab, W.M.; Aboul-Ela, M.T.; Morrall, J.F. 1998. Geometric design consistency based on speed change on horizontal curves, Road and Transport Research 7(1): 13-23.


Abdul-Mawjoud, A.A.; Sofia, G.G. 2008. Development of models for predicting speed on horizontal curves for two-lane rural highways, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 33(2B): 365-377.


Agrawal, V.; Chatterjee, S.; Mitra, S. 2019. Crash Severity Analysis Through Nonparametric Machine Learning Methods, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 13: 2614-2629.


Al-Masaeid, H.R.; Hamed, M.; Aboul-Ela, M.; Ghannam, A.G. 1995. Consistency of horizontal alignment for different vehicle classes, Transportation Research Record 1500: 178-183.


Banihashemi, M.; Dimaiuta, M.; Wang, H. 2011. Operating Speed Model for Low-speed Rural Two-Lane Highways: Design Consistency Module for Interactive Highway Safety Design Model, Transportation Research Record 2223(1): 63-71.


Bird, R.N.; Hashim, I.H. 2005. Operating speed and geometry relationships for rural single carriageways in the UK. In 3rd International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design, Chicago Illinois, United States. 22p.


Castro, M.; Sánchez, J.F.; Sánchez, J.A.; Iglesias, L. 2011. Operating speed and speed differential for highway design consistency, Journal of Transportation Engineering 137(11): 837-840.


Chatterjee, S.; Bandyopadhyaya, P. S.; Mitra, S. 2019. Identifying Critical Safety Issues on Two Lane National Highways in India – A Case Study from NH 117 and NH 60. In 15th World Conference on Transport Research – WCTR, Mumbai, India.


Chatterjee, S.; Mitra, S. 2019. Safety assessment of two-lane highway using a combined proactive and reactive approach: case study from Indian national highways, Transportation Research Record 2673(7): 709-721.


Dinu, R.R.; Veeraragavan, A. 2011. Random parameter models for accident prediction on two-lane undivided highways in India, Journal of Safety Research 42(1): 39-42.


Elvik, R. 2005. Speed and road safety: synthesis of evidence from evaluation studies, Transportation Research Record 1908(1): 59-69.


Fitzpatrick, K. 2003. Design speed, operating speed, and posted speed practices. National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Transportation Research Board. 92 p.


Fitzpatrick, K.; Wooldridge, M.D.; Tsimhoni, O.; Collins, J.M.; Green, P.; Bauer, K.M.; Parma, K.D.; Koppa, R.; Harwood, D.W.; Anderson, I.; Krammes, R.A. 2000. Alternative design consistency rating methods for two-lane rural highways final report. FHWA-RD-99-172. Texas Transportation Institute, USA.


Garber, N.J.; Ehrhart, A.A. 2000. The effect of speed, flow, and geometric characteristics on crash rates for different types of Virginia highways (No. FHWA/VTRC 00-R15). Virginia Transportation Research Council.


Hashim, I.H.; Abdel-Wahed, T.A.; Moustafa, Y. 2016. Toward an operating speed profile model for rural two-lane roads in Egypt, Journal of traffic and transportation engineering (English edition) 3(1): 82-88.


Hassan, Y.; Sayed, T.; Tabernero, V. 2001. Establishing practical approach for design consistency evaluation, Journal of transportation Engineering 127(4): 295-302.


Jacob, A.; Anjaneyulu, M.V.L.R. 2013a. Operating speed of different classes of vehicles at horizontal curves on two-lane rural highways, Journal of Transportation Engineering 139(3): 287-294.


Jacob, A.; Anjaneyulu, M.V.L.R. 2013b. Development of crash prediction models for two-lane rural highways using regression analysis, Highway Research Journal 6(1): 59-70.


Jacob, A.; Dhanya, R.; Anjaneyulu, M.V.L.R. 2013. Geometric design consistency of multiple horizontal curves on two-lane rural highways, Procedia-social and Behavioral Sciences 104: 1068-1077.


Krammes, R.A.; Brackett, R.Q.; Shafer, M.A.; Ottesen, J.L.; Anderson, I.B.; Fink, K.L.; Collins, K.M.; Pendleton, O.J.; Messer, C.J. 1995. Horizontal alignment design consistency for rural two-lane highways (No. FHWA-RD-94-034). Federal Highway Administration, United States.


Lamm, R.; Choueiri, E.M. 1987. Recommendations for evaluating horizontal design consistency based on investigations in the state of New York, Transportation Research Record 1122: 68-78.


Lamm, R.; Smith, B.L. 1994. Curvilinear alinement: an important issue for more consistent and safer road characteristic, Transportation Research Record 1445: 12-21.


Lamm, R.; Psarianos, B.; Cafiso, S. 2002. Safety evaluation process for two-lane rural roads: A 10-year review, Transportation Research Record 1796(1): 51-59.


Leisch, J.E.; Leisch, J.P. 1977. New concepts in design-speed application, Transportation Research Record 631: 4-14.


Maji, A.; Sil, G.; Tyagi, A. 2018. 85th and 98th percentile speed prediction models of car, light, and heavy commercial vehicles for four-lane divided rural highways, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems 144(5) 04018009:1-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1061/JTEPBS.0000136.


McFadden, J.; Elefteriadou, L. 2000. Evaluating horizontal alignment design consistency of two-lane rural highways: Development of new procedure, Transportation Research Record 1737(1): 9-17.


Memon, R.A.; Khaskheli, G.B.; Qureshi, A.S. 2008. Operating speed models for two-lane rural roads in Pakistan, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 35(5): 443-453.


Misaghi, P.; Hassan, Y. 2005. Modeling operating speed and speed differential on two-lane rural roads, Journal of Transportation Engineering 131(6): 408-418.


Naqvi, H.M.; Tiwari, G. 2015. Accident Analysis of a Two-Lane National Highway in India. In Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2015. 6 p. Available from Internet: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-26-0162.


Sekhar, C.R.; Nataraju, J.; Velmurugan, S.; Kumar, P.; Sitaramanjaneyulu, K. 2016. Free flow speed analysis of two lane inter urban highways, Transportation Research Procedia 17: 664-673.


Shallama, R.D.K.; Ahmed, A.M. 2016. Operating Speed Models on Horizontal Curves for Two-lane Highways, Transportation Research Procedia 17: 445-451.


Wang, F.; Ruan, S.; Dai, M. 2016. Characteristics of speed dispersion in urban expressway, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering 10(3): 288-292.


Washington, S.; Karlaftis, M.G.; Mannering, F.; Anastasopoulos, P. 2020. Statistical and econometric methods for transportation data analysis. CRC press. 413 p.