Volume List  / Volume 7 (3)

Article

PEDESTRIANS’ ROLE IN ROAD ACCIDENTS

DOI: 10.7708/ijtte.2017.7(3).04


7 / 3 / 328-341 Pages

Author(s)

Loreta Levulytė - Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanavičiaus g. 28, Vilnius, Lithuania -

David Baranyai - Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3, Budapest, Hungary -

Edgar Sokolovskij - Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanavičiaus g. 28, Vilnius, Lithuania -

Ádám Török - Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3, Budapest, Hungary -


Abstract

Nearly 1.3 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day. In 2013 in European Union more than 22 % of all who died in road traffic crashes were pedestrians. The number of pedestrians killed on roads in the EU has decreased by only 11 %, compared to the total fatality decrease of 18 % from 2010 to 2013. Of all pedestrian fatalities, 69 % are killed inside urban areas. This paper reviews the literature concerning pedestrian-motor vehicle collision and road safety management according to pedestrian role in accident rise. Paper examine pedestrians safety in order to determine what kind of factors of transport infrastructure, vehicle technical parameters, pedestrian behaviour and road or street category have the influence on pedestrian and vehicle accidents and identify technical reasons of accidents rise. Pedestrians crossing, crossing selection, crossing design and waiting times present the pedestrian role in accident according to road situation. A review is conducted of information in the literature on the injury outcome of a pedestrian/vehicle collision for a given impact speed and the likely consequences of reducing the travelling speeds of vehicles in terms of the frequency and severity of pedestrian injuries. Technical information found gives the opportunity to improve accident reconstruction cases and technical parameters, also it let to identify road infrastructure problems and pedestrian behaviour in road.


Download Article

Number of downloads: 61


References:

Aziz, H.A.; Ukkusuri, S.V.; Hasan, S. 2012. Exploring the determinants of pedestrian–vehicle crash severity in New York City, Accident Analysis Prevention 50: 1298-1309.

 

Badea-Romero, A.; Lenard, J. 2013. Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: striking vehicle or road, Accident Analysis & Prevention 50: 1140–1150.

 

Behera, R.K.; Gangadharan, J.; Kutty, K.; Nair, S.; Vaidya, V. 2015. A Novel Method for Day Time Pedestrian Detec-tion, SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars-Electronic and Electrical Systems 8(2):406-412.

 

Brenac, T.; Perrin, C.; Canu, B.; Magnin, J.; Canu, A. 2015. Influence of Travelling Speed on the Risk of Injury Acci-dent: a Matched Case-Control Study, Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering 43(3):129-137.

 

Calvey, J.C.; Shackleton, J.P.; Taylor, M.D.; Llewellyn, R. 2015. Engineering Condition Assessment of Cycling Infra-structure: Cyclists’ Perceptions of Satisfaction and Comfort, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 78: 134–143.

 

Cuerden, R.; Richards, D.; Hill, J. 2007. Pedestrians and Their Survivability at Different Impact Speeds. In Proceedings of the 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (Paper No. 07-0440). Lyon, France, June 18-21, 2007.

 

Deljavan, R.; Sadeghi-Bazargani, H.; Fouladi, N.; Arshi, S.; Mohammadi, R. 2012. Application of Haddon's matrix in qualitative research methodology: an experience in burns epidemiology, International Journal of General Medicine 5: 621-7.

 

Dommes, A.; Cavallo, V.; Vienne, F.; Aillerie, I. 2012. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians, Accident Analysis & Prevention 44(1): 42–47.

 

Elliott, J.R.; Lyons, M.; Kerrigan, J.; Wood, D.P.; Simms, C.K. 2012. Predictive capabilities of the MADYMO multibody pedestrian model: Three‐dimensional head translation and rotation, head impact time and head impact velocity, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part K: Journal of Multi-body Dynamics, 226(3): 266-277.

 

Haleem, K.; Alluri, P.; Gan, A. 2015. Analyzing Pedestrian Crash Injury Severity at Signalized and Non-Signalized Locations, Accident Analysis & Prevention 81: 14–23.

 

Havard, C.; Willis, A. 2012. Effects of installing a marked crosswalk on road crossing behaviour and perceptions of the environment, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 15(3): 249–260.

 

Hosseinpour, M.; Prasetijo, J.; Yahaya, A.Sh.; Ghadiri, S.M.r. 2013. A Comparative Study of Count Models: Applica-tion to Pedestrian-Vehicle Crashes Along Malaysia Federal Roads, Traffic Injury Prevention 14(6): 630-638.

 

Islam, M.S.; Serhiyenko, V.; Ivan, J.N.; Ravishanker, N.; Garder, P.E. 2014. Explaining Pedestrian Safety Experience at Urban and Suburban Street Crossings Considering Observed Conflicts and Pedestrian Counts, Journal of Transporta-tion Safety & Security 6(4): 335-355.

 

Kadali, B.R.; Vedagiri, P. 2013. Modelling pedestrian road crossing behaviour under mixed traffic condition. European Transport 55(3): 1-17.

 

Kajackas, A.; Žuraulis, V.; Sokolovskij, E. 2015. Influence of VANET system on movement of traffic flows in emer-gency situations, PROMET – Traffic&Transportation 27 (3): 237–246.

 

Kusano, K.D.; Gabler, H.C. 2013. Pre-Crash Scenarios for Determining Target Populations of Active Safety Systems. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) (paper number 13-0078). Seoul, South Korea.

 

Liu, Y. C.; Tung, Y.C. 2014. Risk Analysis of Pedestrians’ Road-Crossing Decisions: Effects of Age, Time Gap, Time of Day, and Vehicle Speed, Safety Science, 63: 77–82.

 

Lee, Y.; Sungji, P.; Seokhyun, Y.; Youngsu, K.; Jae-Mo, G. 2012. Pedestrian Accident Analysis With A Silicone Dummy Block, Forensic Science International 220(1–3): e13–e16.

 

Levulytė, L.; Žuraulis, V.; Sokolovskij, E. 2014. The research of dynamic characteristics of a vehicle driving over road roughness, Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability 16(4): 518–525.

 

Lobjois, R.; Benguigui, N.; Cavallo, V. 2013. The Effects of Age and Traffic Density on Street-Crossing Behavior, Accident Analysis & Prevention 53: 166–75.

 

Marchal, P.; Gavrila, D.M.; Letellier, L.; Meinecke, M. M.; Morris, R.;Töns, M. 2015. SAVE-U: An innovative sensor platform for Vulnerable Road User protection. Intelligent Transport Systems and Services 2:21-28.

 

Nasar, J.L.; Troyer, D. 2013. Pedestrian injuries due to mobile phone use in public places, Accident Analysis Prevention 57: 91-95.

 

Nishimura, N.; Simms, C.K.; Wood, D.P. 2015. Impact characteristics of a vehicle population in low speed front to rear collisions, Accident Analysis & Prevention 79: 1–12.

 

Jin, N., Guibing, L., Jikuang, Y., Xuenong, Z., Chao, Z., Xiaoping, Y., ... & Meichuan, W. (2012). A Study of Injury Risk of Bicyclist and Pedestrian in Traffic Accidents in Changsha of China. In Proc. of 5th International Conference on ESAR.

 

Onelcin, P.; Alver, Y. 2014. Pedestrian Behaviour at Signalized Intersections in Izmir, Turkey, In Proceedings of Inter-national Conference on Traffic and Transport Engineering - ICTTE2014, November 27-28, Belgrade, Serbia, 801-806.

 

Piatkowski, D.P.; Krizek, K.J.; Handy, S.L. 2015. Accounting for the Short Term Substitution Effects of Walking and Cycling in Sustainable Transportation, Travel Behaviour and Society 2 (1): 32–41.

 

Richardson, S.; Moser, A.; Orton, T.L.; Zou, R. 2015. Simulation of Vehicle Lateral Side Impacts with Poles to Esti-mate Crush and Impact Speed Characteristics. SAE Technical Paper No. 2015-01-1428.

 

Shinar, D. 2012. Safety and Mobility of Vulnerable Road Users: Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Motorcyclists, Accident Analysis & Prevention 44(1): 1-2.

 

Strandroth, J.; Rizzi, M.; Strenlund, S.; Lie, A.; Tingvall, C. 2011. The Correlation between Pedestrian Injury Severity in Real Life Crashes and Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results, Traffic Injury Prevention 12(6): 604-13.

 

Sokolovskij, E.; Prentkovskis, O. 2013. Investigating traffic accidents: the interaction between a motor vehicle and a pedestrian, Transport 28 (3): 302–312.

 

Tefft, B.C. 2013. Impact speed and a pedestrian's risk of severe injury or death, Accident Analysis and Prevention 50: 871–878.

 

Tian, R., Li, L., Yang, K., Chien, S., Chen, Y., & Sherony, R. (2014, June). Estimation of the vehicle-pedestrian en-counter/conflict risk on the road based on TASI 110-car naturalistic driving data collection. In Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2014 IEEE (pp. 623-629). IEEE.

 

Ukkusuri, S.V.; Miranda-Moreno L.F.; Ramadurai, G.; Isa-Tavarez, J. 2012. The role of built environment on pedes-trian crash frequency, Safety Science 50: 1141–1151.

 

Wang, N.; Mitani, T.; Yamanaka, H. 2012. An analysis between driver's visual field and bicycle accidents or vehicle's behaviour at unsignalized small intersection on the arterial road, Journal of Japan Society of Traffic Engineering 32(33). (in Japanese).

 

Valero, C. F. F., & Puerta, C. P. (2014). Identification of the Main Risk Factors for Vulnerable Non-motorized Users in the City of Manizales and Its Relationship with the Quality of Road Infrastructure. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 162, 359-367.

 

Yanagisawa, M.; Swanson, E.; Najm, W.G. 2014. Target crashes and safety benefits estimation methodology for pedestrian crash avoidance/mitigation systems. (Report No. DOT HS 811 998). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

 

Zhang, Y.; Mamun, S.A.; Ivan, J.N.; Ravishanker, N.; Haque, K. 2015. Safety effects of exclusive and concurrent signal phasing for pedestrian crossing, Accident Analysis and Prevention 83: 26–36.

 

Zheng, J.; Wu, X. 2015. Prediction of Road Traffic Accidents Using a Combined Model Based on IOWGA Operator, Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering 43(3): 146-153.

 

Zebala, J.; Ciępka, P.; Reza, A. 2012. Pedestrian acceleration and speeds, Problems of Forensic Sciences 91: 227–234.

 

Zhao, H.; Yang, G.Y.; Zhu, F. 2013. An investigation on the head injuries of adult pedestrians by passenger cars in China, Traffic Injury Prevention 14: 712–17.

 

Zeng, W.; Chen, P.; Nakamura, H.; Asano, M. 2013. Modeling Pedestrian Trajectory for Safety Assessment at Signal-ized Crosswalks, In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Taipei, Taiwan.

 

Žuraulis, V.; Sokolovskij, E.; Matijošius, J. 2013. The opportunities for establishing the critical speed of the vehicle on research in its lateral dynamics, Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc – Maintenance and Reliability 15(4): 312–318.

 

Žuraulis, V.; Levulytė, L.; Sokolovskij, E. 2014. The impact of road roughness on the duration of contact between a vehicle wheel and road surface, Transport 29(4): 431–439.

 

Yannis, G.; Papadimitriou, E.; Theofilatos, A. 2013. Pedestrian gap acceptance for mid-block street crossing, Transpor-tation planning and technology 36(5): 450-462.