Volume List  / Volume 13 (1)



DOI: 10.7708/ijtte2023.13(1).06

13 / 1 / 68-78 Pages


Aleksandar Đurović - Roaming Networks, Belgrade, Serbia -

Anica Plećić - RNC Solutions, Munich, Germany -

Filip Banković - Roaming Networks, Belgrade, Serbia -

Goran Marković - University of Belgrade – Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering -


The entire telecom industry is going through a change that can be only compared to the change that data centers went through in the 2000s, both driven by Moore’s Law. Open RAN is a crucial enabler of this transformation, allowing building networks to use a fully programmable software-defined RAN solution based on open interfaces that run on commercial, off-the-shelf hardware. This paper aims to present the O-RAN from a theoretical perspective, the pros, and cons of the O-RAN for mobile network operators and try to answer if the future of the RAN is going to be open.

Download Article

Number of downloads: 204


3GPP. 2022. NR and NG-RAN Overall description; Stage-2, Technical Specification (TS) 38.300. Available from Internet: https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/138300_138399/138300/17.00.00_60/ts_138300v170000p.pdf.


Azariah, W. et al. 2022. A Survey on Open Radio Access Networks: Challenges, Research Directions, and Open Source Approaches. In Proceedings of IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials.


Brown, G. 2021. The Outlook for Open vRAN Deployment, A Heavy Reading white paper produced for QCT and Intel.


Caroline, G. et al. 2021. Open RAN: ready for prime time? Analysis Mason Report. Available from Internet: https://www.analysysmason.com/contentassets/bf99e24c249e444fb5c03fdfd125aaa8/analysys_mason_open_ran_reality_apr2021_rdns0_rma18.pdf.


Checko, A. et al. 2015. Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks—A Technology Overview, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (17): 405-426.


Checko, A. et al. 2018. A Survey of the Functional Splits Proposed for 5G Mobile Crosshaul Networks, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (21): 146-172.


Deutsche Telekom. 2021. Deutsche Telekom, Orange, Telefonica, TIM, and Vodafone. June 2021. Open RAN Technical Priorities, Focus on Energy Efficiency. Available from Internet: https://www.o-ran.org/resources.


Emmelmann, M. et al. 2022. Open 5G campus networks: key drivers for 6G innovations, Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik 139: 589–600. Available from Internet: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00502-022-01064-7.


Fujitsu. 2022. A brief look at O-RAN security, White Paper. Available from Internet: https://www.fujitsu.com/global/documents/products/network/Whitepaper-A-Brief-Look-at-O-RAN-Security.pdf.


Gavrilovska, L. et al. 2020. From cloud RAN to open RAN, Springer Wireless Personal Communications (113): 1523–1539.


Hoffmann, M. et al. 2021. Increasing energy efficiency of the massive-MIMO network via base stations switching using reinforcement learning and radio environment maps, Comput. Commun. (169): 232-242.


iGR. 2021. Open RAN Integration: Run With it, White Paper. Available from Internet: https://www.parallelwireless.com/wp-content/uploads/iGR-OpenRAN-Integration-White-Paper-Feb-2021.pdf.


Imoize, L.A. et.al. 2022. A review of energy efficiency and power control schemes in ultra-dense cell-free massive MIMO systems for sustainable 6G wireless communication, Sustainability 14(17): 11100.


Liyanage, M.; Braeken, A.; Shahabuddin, S.; Ranaweera, P. 2023. Open RAN security: Challenges and opportunities, Journal of Network and Computer Applications 214: 103621.


Mimran, D. 2022. Evaluating the Security of Open Radio Access Networks. Available from Internet: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2201.06080.pdf.


O-RAN Alliance. 2021. O-RAN Use Cases and Deployment Scenarios, White Paper. Available from Internet: https://www.o-ran.org/resources.


O-RAN Working Group 1. 2021. O-RAN Architecture Description, ORAN.WG1.O- RAN-Architecture-Description-v06.00, Technical Specification. Available from Internet: https://orandownloadsweb.azurewebsites.net/specifications.


O-RAN Working Group 11. 2022. O-RAN Security Threat Modeling and Remediation Analysis 4.0, Technical Specification. Available from Internet: https://orandownloadsweb.azurewebsites.net/specifications.


Parallel Wireless. 2020. Everything you need to know about Open RAN, White paper. Available from Internet: https://www.parallelwireless.com/wp-content/uploads/Parallel-Wireless-e-Book-Everything-You-Need-to-Know-about-Open-RAN.pdf.


Peng, M. et al. 2015. Fronthaul-Constrained cloud radio access networks: Insights and challenges, IEEE Wireless Communications 2(22): 152-160.


Polese, M.; Bonati, L.; D’Oro, S.; Basagni, S.; Melodia, T. 2023. Understanding O-RAN: Architecture, interfaces, algorithms, security, and research challenges, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (early access).


Polese, M. et al. 2020. Toward End-to-End, Full-Stack 6G Terahertz Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine 11(58): 48–54.


Rakuten Symphony. 2022. The definitive guide to Open RAN Security. Available from Internet: https://symphony.rakuten.com/insight/security-guide/the-definitive-guide-to-open-ran-security.


Rimedo Labs. 2021. Overview, architecture, and traffic steering use case, White Paper.Available from Internet: https://mailchi.mp/2e636c769397/2nh23omc40.


Rimedo Labs. 2023. Energy Efficiency in O-RAN, White Paper. Tecknexus. 2022. The current state of open RAN, 5G Magazine (2): 08-27. Available from Internet: https://tecknexus.com/5g-network/the-current-state-of-open-ran-june-2022/.


TelcoCloudBridge. 2023. C-RAN vs cloud RAN vs vRAN vs O-RAN. Available from Internet: https://telcocloudbridge.com/blog/c-ran-vs-cloud-ran-vs-vran-vs-o-ran.


Umesh, A. et al. 2020. Overview of O-RAN Fronthaul specifications, NTT DOCOMO Technical Journal 1(21): 46-59.


Wypiór, D. et al. 2022. Open RAN—Radio Access Network Evolution, Benefits and Market Trends, Applied Sciences (12): 408.


Ying, Z. 2018. Network Function Virtualization: Concepts and Applicability in 5G Networks, Wiley-IEEE Press, ISBN: 978-1-119-39060-2.