Volume List  / Volume 10 (2)

Article

ESTIMATE PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT OF VEHICLES PERFORMING MANOEUVRE TO ENTER OR LEAVE LEGAL AND ILLEGAL ON-STREET PARKING

DOI: 10.7708/ijtte.2020.10(2).06


10 / 2 / 199 - 214 Pages

Author(s)

Ahmed Elkafoury - Department of Public Works Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt -

Islam Abo El-Naga - Department of Public Works Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt -


Abstract

For transportation and traffic designers, the existence of a method to convert effective vehicles into reference Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE) is an essence. Both legal and illegal on-street parking events are associated with manoeuvre during entering or leaving the parking spot. This manoeuvre is highly affecting the traffic performance of the street link. This paper introduces a method for determining the Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE) for vehicles that perform a manoeuvre for on-street parking. The M/M/∞ queuing model together with the Greenshield traffic state model are used to estimate the effect of the delay and the capacity drop caused by a manoeuvring event on the traffic flow continuity in case of entering or leaving a legal and illegal on-street parking space. Two design charts are introduced to show the values of the average passenger car equivalent for different manoeuvre times and manoeuvring frequencies combinations for both legal and illegal parking types. PCE values of vehicles manoeuvre for legal parking experience fluctuation throughout the link’s volume to capacity (D/C ) ranges. It is found that, for lower D/C ratios and up to D/C of about 0.33, PCE of vehicles manoeuvre for legal parking types shows a slight upward trend. The smallest PCE of vehicles manoeuvre for legal parking is noticed at D/C of nearly 0.41. Then, the increase of D/C is accompanied with an increase of PCE supported by the increase of the link’s average travel time. During manoeuvring for illegal on-street parking, the section loses one more lane capacity for the duration of the manoeuvre. Thus, the traffic demand outrace the capacity at D/C of about 0.69 which is earlier than the case of legal parking which influences the PCE value. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the time of the manoeuvring event is the major cause of uncertainty in the predicted PCE of a parking manoeuvring vehicle.


Download Article

Number of downloads: 61


References:

Ahmed, U.; Cetin, M. 2017. Case Studies on Transport Policy Impacts of heavy vehicles on inter-vehicle interactions and passenger car equivalents for tunnel traffic, Case Studies on Transport Policy (August): 0–1.

 

Arasan, V.T.; Arkatkar, S.S. 2010. Microsimulation Study of Effect of Volume and Road Width on PCU of Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic, Journal of Transportation Engineering 136: 1110–1119.

 

Benekohal, R. 2000. Delay-based passenger car equivalents for trucks at signalized intersections, Transportation Research Part A 34: 437–457.

 

Biswas, S.; Subhadip, C. 2017. Kriging-Based Approach for Estimation of Vehicular Speed and Passenger Car Units on an Urban Arterial, Journal of Transportation Engineering Part A: Systems 143(3): 1–11.

 

Biswas, S.; Chandra, S.; Ghosh, I. 2017. Estimation of Vehicular Speed and Passenger Car Equivalent Under Mixed Traffic Condition Using Artificial Neural Network, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 42(9): 4099–4110.

 

Biswas, S.; Satish, C.; Indrajit, G. 2017. Effects of On-Street Parking In Urban Context: A Critical Review Effects of On-Street Parking in Urban Context: A Critical Review, Transportation in Developing Economies 3(1): 1–14.

 

Bulacital, A.; Dizon, F.; Garcia, M.; Valdaz, J. 2013. Comparison of on-street parking management in Ermita-Malate Manila and Makati central business district. In Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies: 9-22.

 

Cao, J.; Menendez, M. 2015. System dynamics of urban traffic based on its parking-related-states, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 81: 718–736.

 

Cao, J.; Menendez, M.; Nikias, V. 2016. The effects of on-street parking on the service rate of nearby intersections, Journal of Advanced Transportation 50: 406–420.

 

Cao, N. Y. 2012. Estimating capacity and motorcycle equivalent units on urban roads in Hanoi, Journal of Transportation Engineering 138(6): 776–785.

 

Cen, X.; Lo, H.K.; Li, L. 2016. A framework for estimating traffic emissions: the development of passenger car emission unit, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 44: 78–92.

 

Chandra, S.; Kumar, U. 2003. Effect of Lane Width on Capacity under Mixed Traffic Conditions in India, Journal of Transportation Engineering 129(2): 155–160.

 

Dhamaniya, A.; Chandra, S. 2017. Influence of Operating Speed on Capacity of Urban Arterial Midblock Sections, International Journal of Civil Engineering 15(7): 1053–1062.

 

Elkafoury, A.; Negm, A.; Bady, M.; Ichimura, T. 2016. Develop dynamic model for predicting traffic CO emissions in urban areas, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(16): 15899-15910.

 

Fadairo, G. 2013. Traffic Congestion in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria: Using Federal University of Technology Akure Road as a case study, International Journal of Arts and Commerce 2(5): 67–76.

 

Fadhil, A.; Ozen, H. 2017. Characteristics of On-Street Parking in Istanbul, Sigma Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences 35(4): 575–584.

 

Giuffre, O. 2016. Passenger car equivalent for heavy vehicles crossing turbo-roundabouts, Transportation Research Procedia 14: 4190–4199. doi: 10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.390.

 

Giuffre, O. 2018. Simulation modelling practice and theory capacity-based calculation of passenger car equivalents using traffic simulation at double-lane roundabouts, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 81(2018): 11–30.

 

Greenshields, B.D.; Channing, W.; Miller, H. 1935. A study of traffic capacity. In Highway Research Board Proceedings, (1954): 448-477.

 

Greg, M. 2006. The evidence base for parking policies — a review, Transport Policy 13: 447–457.

 

Gu, W.; Vikash, V.; Michael, J.; Saade, N. 2014. On the impacts of bus stops near signalized intersections: models of car and bus delays, Transportation Research Part B 68: 123–140.

 

Jin, S. 2015. Estimating cycleway capacity and bicycle equivalent unit for electric bicycles, Transportation Research Part A 77: 225–248.

 

John, I.; Norman, G.; Gilbert, H. 2009. Designing roads that guide drivers to choose safer speeds - Report No. JHR-09-321.

 

Lee, C. 2015. Developing Passenger-Car Equivalents for Heavy Vehicles in Entry Flow at Roundabouts, Journal of Transportation Engineering 141: 1–7.

 

Mardani, M. N.; Chandra, S.; Ghosh, I. 2015. Passenger Car Unit of Vehicles on Undivided Intercity Roads in India, Procedia Computer Science 52: 926–931.

 

Melike, B.; Weihua, X.; Kaan, O.; Duan, Z. 2006. Delay Estimation for Traffic Flow Interrupted by Incidents. In Proceedings of the 86th Annual Transportation Research Conference, 1-18.

 

Melike, B.; Weihua, X.; Kaan, O. 2009. Modeling traffic flow interrupted by incidents, European Journal of Operational Research 195: 127–138.

 

Mohan, M.; Chandra, S. 2017. Queue clearance rate method for estimating passenger car equivalents at signalized intersections, Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition) 4(5): 487–495.

 

Munawar, A. 2011. Speed and Capacity for Urban Roads, Indonesian Experience, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 16: 382–387. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.459.

 

Nassiri, H.; Tabatabaie, S.; Sahebi, S. 2017. Delay-Based Passenger Car Equivalent at Signalized Intersections in Iran, Promet-Traffic&Transportation 29(2): 135–142.

 

Radhakrishnan, P.; Mathew, T. V. 2011. Transportmetrica Passenger car units and saturation flow models for highly heterogeneous traffic at urban signalised intersections, Transportmetrica 7(2): 141–162.

 

Saad, Y.; Purnawan, M. 2004. Traffic operations at on-street parking facilities. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Transport, 157(August): 189–194.

 

Salini, S.; George, S.; Ashalatha, R. 2016. Effect of Side Frictions on Traffic Characteristics of Urban Arterials, Transportation Research Procedia, 17(December 2014): 636–643.

 

Samaher, Y. 1999. On-street parking: Effects on traffic congestion, Traffic Engineering & Control 40(9): 424-431.

 

Samaher, Y. 2004. Traffic operations at on-street parking facilities. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Transport, 157(3): 189–194.

 

Sarraj, Y. 2014. Passenger Car Equivalents at Signalized Intersections for Heavy and Medium Trucks and Animal Driven Carts in Gaza, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 4: 80–88.

 

Sasikumar, S.; Ashalatha, R. 2018. Development of passenger car unit based on acceleration noise for urban arterials. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 171(6): 331-338.

 

Stephen, I.; Tom, R. 2006. Parking, Transport Policy 13: 445–446.

 

TRB. 2010. Highway Capacity Manual. Fifth edition, Washington, D.C., National Research Council.

 

Xiaofei, Y.; Jun, C. 2011. Traffic Delay Caused by Curb Parking Set in the Influenced Area of a Signalized Intersection. In Proceedings of the ICCTP, 566–578.

 

Yeung, J. S.; Wong, Y. D.; Secadiningrat, J. R. 2015. Lane-harmonised passenger car equivalents for heterogeneous expressway traffic, Transportation Research Part A 78: 361–370.


Quoted IJTTE Works



Related Keywords