Volume List  / Volume 8 (4)



DOI: 10.7708/ijtte.2018.8(4).08

8 / 4 / 494 - 512 Pages


Pornnarong Lueanpech - Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand -

Terdsak Rongviriyapanich - Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand -


During the peak hour, drivers are occasionally allowed to use the shoulder lane on the Kanjanapisek Expressway to provide additional space and reduce travel delay. Based on the observation, we found a significant number of vehicles regularly used the shoulder lane both during the peak and off-peak period. Concentrate on midblock section, we found the use of shoulder lane during the free flow traffic condition. The consequence of inconsistent lane utilization on midblock section affects the stability of traffic flow and creates a bottleneck on the expressway. This study aimed to investigate the characteristic of shoulder lane utilization behavior, identified significant parameters affecting shoulder lane utilization behavior and compared the empirical data with simple linear regression and sigmoid function. In this study, the empirical data of 5 expressway midblock sections on the Kanjanapisek Expressway was chosen for study area. Traffic stream data collections were gathered from image processing traffic detection system. The result indicated that the shoulder lane utilization behavior has unique characteristic in different flow condition. The most influenced factors that contributes to shoulder lane utilization was the total density. Linear and sigmoid function were compared to establish relationship between the influenced factor and the shoulder lane utilization. In term of modelling, the sigmoid function provided good estimates of shoulder lane utilization on expressway midblock section of the Kanjanapisek Expressway. These results should contribute to a better understanding of discretionary lane selection behavior.

Download Article

Number of downloads: 143


The Ph.D. scholarship was funded by the Expressway Authority of Thailand and this research was partially supported by Graduate College of King Monkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. The authors would like to thank the Department of Expressway System Engineering Research and Development, Expressway Authority of Thailand for providing the access to the EXAT ITS database system.


AASHTO. 2011. A policy on geometric design of highways and streets, 6th edition. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Washington D.C. 912 p.


Amin, M.R.; Banks, J.H. 2005. Variation in freeway lane use patterns with volume, time of day, and location, Transportation research record 1934(1): 132-139.


Bangarraju, V.S.H.; Ravishankar, K.V.R.; Mathew, V.T. 2016. Analysis of Lateral Distance Keeping Behaviour in Mixed Traffic Conditions with Little Lane Discipline, International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering 6(4): 431-443.


Berger, W.; Maurer, P. 1999. Emergency bays versus emergency lanes on motorways–A cost benefit analysis. In Proceedings of the Traffic Safety on Two Continents–10th International Conference, 9: 99 p.


Carter, M.; Rakha, H.; Aerde, M.V. 1999. Variability of traffic-flow measures across freeway lanes, Canadian journal of civil engineering 26(3): 270-281.


Choudhury, C.; Ramanujam, V.; Ben-Akiva, M. 2008. A lane changing model for urban arterials. In Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium of transport simulation, Gold Coast, Australia.


Daganzo, C.F. 2002a. A behavioural theory of multi-lane traffic flow. Part I: Long homogenous freeway sections, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 36(2):131-158.


Daganzo, C.F. 2002. A behavioral theory of multi-lane traffic flow. Part II: Merges and the onset of congestion, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 36(2): 159-169.


Duret, A.; Ahn, S.; Buisson, C. 2012. Lane flow distribution on a three-lane freeway: General features and the effects of traffic controls, Transportation research part C: emerging technologies 24: 157-167.


Expressway Authority of Thailand, 2017. Statistics Data. Available from internet: http://new.exat.co.th/index.php/th/statistics.html.


Expressway Authority of Thailand, 2017. EXAT ITS database system.


Fwa, T.F.; Li, S. 1995. Estimation of lane distribution of truck traffic for pavement design, Journal of transportation engineering 121(3): 241-248.


Gunay, B. 2004. An investigation of lane utilisation on Turkish highways. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Transport, 157(1): 43-49.


Gunay, B. 2007. Car following theory with lateral discomfort, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 41(7): 722-735.


Gunay, B. Erdemir, G. 2011. Lateral analysis of longitudinal headways in traffic flow, International Journal Of Engineering & Applied Sciences 3(2): 90-100.


HCM, 2010. Highway Capacity Manual. Washington, D.C.


Heidamann, D. 1994. Distribution of traffic to the individual lane on multilane unidirectional roadways. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Highway Capacity, 1: 265-275.


Hollis, E.; Evan, R. 1976. Motorway traffic patterns. Transportation Research Laboratory. UK.


Hurdel, V.; Merlo, M.; Robertson, D. 1997. Study of speed-flow relationships on individual freeway lanes, Transportation Research Record 1591(1): 7-13.


Kellermann, G., 2000. Experience of using the hard shoulder to improve traffic flow, Traffic Engineering and Control 41(10): 412-414.


Knoop, V.L.; Duret, A.; Buisson, C.; Van Arem, B. 2010. Lane distribution of traffic near merging zones influence of variable speed limits. In Proceedings of the 13th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 485-490.


Lee, J.; Park, B.B. 2010. Lane flow distributions on basic segments of freeways under different traffic conditions. Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board, No. 10-1947.


Lighthill, M.; Whitham, G. B. 1955. The kinematics wave II. A theory of traffic flows on long crowed roads. Available from internet: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu.


Lueanpech, P.; Rongviriyapanich, T. 2017. Modelling of shoulder lane utilization for expressway. In Proceedings of the International Congress on Engineering and Information, 49-62.


Mirshahi, M.; Obenberger, J.; Fuhs, C.A.; Howard, C.E.; Krammes, R.A.; Kuhn, B.T.; Mayhew, R.M.; Moore, M.A.; Sahebjam, K.; Stone, C.J.; Yung, J.L. 2007. Active traffic management: the next step in congestion management. United States. Federal Highway Administration. No. FHWA-PL-07-012.


Moriyama, Y.; Mitsuhashi, M.; Hirai, S.; Oguchi, T. 2011. The effect on lane utilization and traffic capacity of adding an auxiliary lane, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 16:37-47.


Nezamuddin, N.; Jiang, N.; Zhang, T.; Waller, S.T.; Sun, D. 2011. Traffic operations and safety benefits of active traffic strategies on TXDOT freeways. FHWA. No. FHWA/TX-12/0-6576-1.


Okura, I.; Somasundaraswaran, K., 1996. Analysis of traffic distribution in three lane unidirectional freeway, Journal of Infrastructure Planning Review (13): 885-892.


Pompigna, A.; Rupi, F. 2017. Lane-distribution models and related effects on the capacity for a three-lane freeway section: Case study in Italy, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, 143(10). p.05017010.


Richards, P. 1956. Shocks waves on highway, Operations Research 4(1): 42-51.


Royal Thai Police Department. 1979. Land Traffic Act.


Samoili, S.; Efthymiou, D.; Antoniou, C.; Dumont, A. 2013. Lane flow distribution investigation of hard shoulder running freeway. Washington DC. Transportation Research Board.


Turner, D.J. 1983. Traffic characteristics of a rural motorway, Traffic Engineering & Control 24(HS-035 427): 248-251.


Wu, N. 2006. Equilibrium of lane flow distribution on motorways, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (1965): 48-59.


Wu, N. 2009. Further Development of the German Highway Capacity Manual (HBS2011). In Proceedings of the ICCTP 2009: Critical Issues In Transportation Systems Planning, Development, and Management, 1-6.


Xiao, C.; Shao, C.; Meng, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, B. 2014. Lane flow distribution of a long continuous highway, European Transport - Trasporti Europei 56(6): 1-16.