Volume List  / Volume 8 (3)



DOI: 10.7708/ijtte.2018.8(3).09

8 / 3 / 32-389 Pages


Milanko Čabarkapa - University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade, Serbia -

Marjana Čubranić-Dobrodolac - University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia -

Svetlana Čičević - University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia -

Boris Antić - University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Belgrade, Serbia -


Findings from numerous studies pointed out the importance of studying certain forms of behavior and personality traits in order to understand propensity to commit unsafe maneuvers in traffic. The present study aims at evaluating the potential contribution of impulsiveness and aggressive driving in the prediction of traffic accidents, and at investigating relationship among them. Besides, the second main goal is to compare the levels of impulsiveness and aggressiveness among three considered groups: bus drivers, truck drivers and non-professional drivers. Participants were 305 drivers who completed the BIS-11 (Barrat Impulsiveness Scale) and ADBQ (Aggressive Driving Behavior Questionnaire). Research sample comprised of 202 professional drivers (bus drivers and truck drivers), and 103 non-professional drivers. The results showed a statistically significant relationship between impulsiveness correlates and correlates of aggressive driving behavior. Bus drivers and truck drivers showed higher levels of impulsiveness in comparison to non-professional drivers, while the highest level of aggression is recorded among non-professional drivers, followed by truck drivers and bus drivers. Finally, the results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that impulsiveness as a personality trait, as well as aggressive driving, are good predictors of traffic accidents.

Download Article

Number of downloads: 1640


This research was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, project no. TR36022.


AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. 2009. Aggressive Driving Research Update. Available from internet: http://www.aaafoundation.org/pdf/AggressiveDrivingResearchUpdate2009.


Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J. 2002. Human Aggression, Annual Review of Psychology 53: 27-51. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135231.


Arthur J.W.; Bell, S.T.; Edwards, B.D.; Day, E.A.; Tubré, T.C.; Tubré, A.H. 2005. Convergence of self-report and archival crash involvement data: A two-year longitudinal follow up, Human Factors 47(2): 303–313. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1518/0018720054679416.


Barratt ES. 1965. Factor analysis of some psychometric measures of impulsiveness and anxiety, Psychological Reports 16(2): 547–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1965.16.2.547


Barratt, E.S.; Slaughter, L. 1998. Defining, measuring, and predicting impulsive aggression: A heuristic model, Behavior Science Law 16(3): 285–302. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199822)16:3%3C285::AID-BSL308%3E3.0.CO;2-4.


Baron, R.A.; Richardson, D.R. 1994. Human Aggression: Naturalistic Approaches. Routledge, London, Great Britain, 25–41.


Benfield, J.A.; Szlemko, W.J.; Bell, P.A. 2007. Driver personality and anthropomorphic attributions of vehicle personality relate to reported aggressive driving tendencies, Personality and Individual Differences 42(2): 247–258. Available from internet: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.06.016.


Bone, S. A.; Mowen, J.C. 2006. Identifying the traits of aggressive and distracted drivers: A hierarchical trait model approach, Journal of Consumer Behaviour 5(5): 454–464. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cb.193.


Brill, J. C.; Mouloua, M.; Shirkey, E. 2009. Predictive validity of the Aggressive Driver Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ) in a simulated environment. In Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1334-1337.


Buss, A.H.; Perry, M. 1992. The aggression questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63(3): 452–459. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.3.452.


Clarke, D.D.; Ward, P.; Bartle, C.; Truman, W. 2006. Young driver accidents in the UK: the influence of age, experience: and time of day, Accident Analysis and Prevention 38(5): 871–878. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2006.02.013.


Critchfield, K.L.; Levy, K.N.; Clarkin, J.F. 2004. The relationship between impulsivity, aggression, and impulsive–aggression in borderline personality disorder: An empirical analysis of self–report measures, Journal of Personality Disorders 18(6): 555–570. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi.18.6.555.54795.


Cyders, M. A.; Smith, G.T.; Spillane, N.S.; Fischer, S.; Annus, A.M., Peterson, C. 2007. Integration of impulsivity and positive mood to predict risky behavior: Development and validation of a measure of positive urgency, Psychological Assessment 19(1): 107–118. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.19.1.107.


Čubranić-Dobrodolac, M.; Lipovac, K.; Čičević, S.; Antić, B. 2017. A model for traffic accidents prediction based on driver personality traits assessment, Promet – Traffic & Transportation 29(6): 631-642. Available from internet: https://doi.org/10.7307/ptt.v29i6.2495.


Dahlen, E.R.; Martin, R.C.; Ragan, K.; Kuhlman, M.M. 2005. Driving anger, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness in the prediction of unsafe driving, Accident Analysis and Prevention 37(2): 341–348. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2004.10.006.


Dahlen, E.R.; Edwards, B.D.; Tubré, T.; Zyphur, M.J.; Warren, C.R. 2012. Taking a look behind the wheel: An investigation into the personality predictors of aggressive driving, Accident Analysis and Prevention 45(2): 1–9. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.11.012.


Deffenbacher, J.L.; Oetting, E.R.; Lynch, R.S. 1994. Development of a driving anger scale, Psychological Reports 74(1): 83–91. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1994.74.1.83.


Deffenbacher, J.L.; Huff, M.E.; Lynch, R.S.; Oetting, E.R.; Salvatore, N.F. 2000. Characteristics and treatment of high-anger drivers, Journal of Counseling Psychology 47(1): 5–17. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.47.1.5.


Deffenbacher, J.L.; Lynch, R.S.; Oetting, E.R.; Swaim, R.C. 2002. The Driving Anger Expression Inventory: A measure of how people express their anger on the road, Behaviour Research and Therapy 40(6): 717-737. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00063-8.


Deffenbacher, J.L.; Filetti, L.B.; Richards, T.L.; Lynch, R.S.; Oetting, E.R. 2003. Characteristics of two groups of angry drivers, Journal of Counseling Psychology 50(2): 123-132. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.50.2.123.


De Oña, J.; Lopez, G.; Mujalli, R.; Calvo, F.J. 2013. Analysis of traffic accidents on rural highways using latent class clustering and Bayesian networks, Accident Analysis and Prevention 51: 1–10. Available from internet: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.10.016.


Eiksund, S. 2009. A geographical perspective on driving attitudes and behavior among young adults in urban and rural Norway, Safety Science 47(4): 529–536. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2008.07.034.


Elander, J.; West, R.; French, D. 1993. Behavioural Correlates: Individual Differences in Road-Traffic Crash Risk: An Examination of Methods and Findings, Psychological Bulletin 113(2): 279 – 294. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.2.279.


Evans, L. 1991. Traffic Safety and the Driver. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.


Eysenck, S.B.G.; Eysenck, H.J. 1978. Impulsiveness and venturesomeness: Their position in a dimensional system of personality description, Psychological Reports 43(3): 1247–1255. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1978.43.3f.1247.


Ge, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Yu, T.; Zhang, K.; Qu, W. 2016. Validation of the Driver’s Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ) in a Chinese sample, Accident Analysis and Prevention 95: 362–372. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.04.025.


Girotto, E.; de Andrade, S.M.; González, A.D.; Mesas, A.E. 2016. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers, Accident Analysis and Prevention 95: 299–304. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.07.004.


Gordon, M.A. 2007. Evaluating the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a Predictor of Risk Taking in Adolescent and Adult Male Drivers. Thesis, Master of Social Sciences (MSocSc). The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Available from internet: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2455.


Gurda, A. 2012. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Aggressive Driving Behavior Questionnaire (ADBQ). A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Honors in the Major Program in Psychology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida. Available from internet: http://stars.library.ucf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2271&context=honorstheses1990-2015.


Fernandes, R.; Job, R.F.S.; Hatfield, J. 2007. A challenge to the assumed generalizability of prediction and countermeasure for risky driving: Different factors predict different risky driving behaviors, Journal of Safety Research 38(1): 59-70. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2006.09.003.


Fox, R.T. 2012. Examining Attention, Impulsiveness, and Cognitive Failures in Driving Behaviors, Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1465. Available from internet: http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/1465.


Furnham A.; Saipe J. 1993. Personality Correlates of Convicted Drivers, Personality and Individual Differences 14(2): 329–336. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90131-L.


Hansen, C.P. 1988. Personality characteristics of the accident involved employee, Journal of Business and Psychology 2(4): 346-365. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01013766.


Harre, R.; Lamb, R. 1983. The encyclopedic dictionary of psychology. Basil Blackwell Publisher Limited, Great Britain.


Jakubczyk, A.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Wnorowska, A.; Mika, K.; Bugaj, M.; Podgórska, A.; Barry, K., Blow, F.C.; Brower, K.J.; Wojnar, M. 2013. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients, Accident Analysis and Prevention 51: 150–155. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.11.013.


Jallade, C.; Sarfati, Y.; Hardy-Bayle, M.C. 2005. Clinical evolution after self-induced or accidental traumatism: A controlled study of the extent and the specificity of suicidal catharsis, Journal of Affective Disorders 85(3): 283–292. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2004.11.002.


Jonah, B.A.; Thiessen, R.; Au-Yeung, E. 2001. Sensation seeking, risky driving and behavioural adaptation, Accident Analysis and Prevention 33(5): 679–684. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(00)00085-3.


Jovanovic, D.; Lipovac, K.; Stanojevic, P.; Stanojevic, D. 2011. The effects of personality traits on driving-related anger and aggressive behaviour in traffic among Serbian drivers, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 14(1): 43–53. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2010.09.005.


Kanaan, A.; Huertas, P.; Santiago, A.; Sánchez, J.A.; Martínez, P. 2009. Incidence of different health factors and their influence on traffic accidents in the province of Madrid, Spain, Legal Medicine 11(Supplement 1): S333–S336. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.01.010.


Koushki, P.A.; Bustan, M. 2006. Smoking, belt use, and road accidents of youth in Kuwait, Safety Science 44(8): 733–746. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2006.03.003.


Krahé, B.; Fenske, I. 2002. Predicting aggressive driving behavior: the role of macho personality, age, and power of car, Aggressive Behavior 28(1): 21–29. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.90003.


McMurran, M.; Blair, M.; Egan, V. 2002. An investigation of the correlations between aggressiveness, impulsiveness, social problem-solving, and alcohol use, Aggressive Behavior 28(6): 439–445. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.80017.


Miles, D.E.; Johnson, G.L. 2003. Aggressive driving behaviors: are there psychological and attitudinal predictors? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 6(2): 147–161. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(03)00022-6.


Moeller, G.; Barratt, E.; Dougherty, D.; Schmitz, J.; Swann, A. 2001. Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity, American Journal of Psychiatry 158(11): 1783–1793. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1783.


Mouloua, M.; Brill, J. C.; Shirkey, E. 2007. Gender differences and aggressive driving behavior: A factor analytic study. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Baltimore, MD, 1283-1286.


Özkan, T.; Lajunen, T.; Parker, D.; Sümer, N.; Summala, H. 2010. Symmetric relationship between self and others in aggressive driving across gender and countries, Traffic Injury Prevention 11(3): 228–239. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389581003788864.


Parker, D.; Lajunen, T.; Stradling, S. 1998. Attitudinal predictors of interpersonally aggressive violations on the road, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 1(1): 11–24. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(98)00002-3.


Pasa, G. G.; Sousa, T.; Guimarães, L.; Pechansky, F. 2013. Risk behavior, sensation seeking and impulsivity: study comparing drunk drivers with sober drivers. In Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 1-6. Available from internet: http://www.icadtsinternational.com/files/documents/2013_102.pdf.


Patton, J.H.; Stanford, M.S.; Barratt, E.S. 1995. Factor structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Journal of Clinical Psychology 51(6): 768–774. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199511)51:6%3C768::AID-JCLP2270510607%3E3.0.CO;2-1.


Plutchik, R.; van Praag, H.M. 1995. The nature of impulsivity: definitions, ontology, genetics, and relations to aggression. In E. Hollander and D. J. Stein (Eds.), Impulsivity and Aggression, 7–24. Wiley, New York.


Renner, W.; Anderle, F.G. 2000. Venturesomeness and extraversion as correlates of juvenile drivers’ traffic violations, Accident Analysis and Prevention 32(5): 673–678. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00103-7.


Roads of Serbia. 2016. Annual Average Daily Traffic in 2015. Document of the Agency. Belgrade: Road Traffic Safety Agency.


Road Traffic Safety Agency, Republic of Serbia. 2015. Internal document of the Agency. Belgrade: Road Traffic Safety Agency.


Rubio, G.; Jimenez, M.; Rodriguex-Jimenez, R.; Martinez, I.; Iribarren, M.M.; Jimenez-Arriero, M.A.; Ponce, G.; Ávila, C. 2007. Varieties of impulsivity in males with alcohol dependence. The role of cluster-B personality disorder, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 31(11): 1826–1832. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00506.x.


Sârbescu, P.; Stanojevic, P.; Jovanovic, D. 2014. A cross-cultural analysis of aggressive driving: Evidence from Serbia and Romania, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 24: 210-217. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2014.04.002.


Scott-Parker, B.; Watson, B.; King, M.J. 2009. Understanding the psychosocial factors influencing the risky behavior of young drivers, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 12(6): 470–482. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2009.08.003.


Stanford, M.S.; Barratt, E.S. 1992. Impulsivity and the multi-impulsive personality disorder, Personality and Individual Differences Journal 13(7): 831–834. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90057-V.


Stanford, M.S.; Greve, K.W.; Boudreanx, J.K.; Mathias, C.W.; Brumbelow, J.L. 1996. Impulsiveness and risk-taking behavior: comparison of high-school and college students using the Barratt impulsiveness Scale, Personality and Individual Differences 21(6): 1075–1973. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00151-1.


Stanford, M.S.; Mathias, C.W.; Dougherty, D.M.; Lake, S.L.; Anderson, N.E.; Patton, J.H. 2009. Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: An update and review, Personality and Individual Differences 47(5): 385–395. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.04.008.


Tasca, L. (2000). A review of the literature on aggressive driving research. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Advisory Group on Safe Driving Secretariat, Road User Safety Branch, Ontario Ministry of Transportation. 25 p.


Ulleberg, P.; Rundmo T. 2003. Personality, Attitudes and Risk Perception as Predictors of Risky Driving Behaviour among Young Drivers, Safety Science 41(5): 427–443. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(01)00077-7.


Warren, J. I.; South, S. C. 2006. Comparing the constructs of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated women, Behavioral Sciences & the Law 24: 1–20. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl.663.


Waylen, A.E.; McKenna, F.P. 2008. Risky attitudes towards road use in pre-drivers, Accident Analysis and Prevention 40(3): 905–911. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2007.10.005.


World Health Organization (WHO). 2015. Road Traffic Injuries 2014. Available from internet: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112738/1/9789240692671_eng.pdf.


Xu, J.; Li, J.; Jiang, L. 2014. The effects of situational factors and impulsiveness on drivers’ intentions to violate traffic rules: Difference of driving experience, Accident Analysis and Prevention 62: 54–62. Available from internet: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.014.


Zuckerman, M. 1994. Behavioural Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking. University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge.