Volume List  / Volume 4 (4)

Article

A REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN POPULATION AND TRANSPORT ENERGY CONSUMPTION

DOI: 10.7708/ijtte.2014.4(4).02


4 / 4 / 372-385 Pages

Author(s)

Houshmand E. Masoumi - Center for Technology and Society, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany -

Hamid Soltanzadeh - Center for Technology and Society, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany -


Abstract

The association between urban population density and transport energy consumption is a well-discussed topic in the metropolitan level. However it is less studied in the regional scale. This paper demonstrates the results of an observation about transport energy use in 174 regions of Iran. Logarithmic regression analysis shows very weak associations between urban population density and transport fuel use in the regional level. However statistical analysis of population size and the area of the regions by means of Kruskal-Wallis test indicates that regions with medium populations of between 100000 and 500000 inhabitants and areas of between 2000 and 5000 square kilometers enjoy more energy-efficient consumption than regions with more than 500000 people and 15000 square kilometers area and small regions of less than 100000 residents and 2000 square kilometers. This observation raises the question about higher energy efficiency of mid-sized cities and regions. Also more specialized studies about urban sprawl and its impacts on transport energy consumption in small towns and rural places seem desirable.


Download Article

Number of downloads: 1148


References:

Banister, D.; Watson, S.; Wood, C. 1997. Sustainable Cities, Transport, Energy and Urban Form, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 24(1): 125-143.

 

Baur, A.H.; Thess, M.; Kleinschmit, B.; Creutzig, F. 2013. Urban Climate Change Mitigation in Europe: Looking at and beyond the Role of Population Density, Journal of Urban Planning and Development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000165, 140(1): 040130031-0401300312.

 

Bourdic, L.; Salat, S. 2011. Urban Density and Private Transport Energy Consumption: a Fractal Model. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies, 17-20 December 2011, Hong Kong.

 

Breheny, M. 1995. The Compact City and Transport Energy Consumption, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622726, 20(1): 81-101.

 

Brindle, R.E. 1994. Lies, Damned Lies and “Automobile Dependence” – Some Hyperbolic Ref lections. In Proceedings of the 1994 Australian Transport Research Forum, Melbourne, Australia. 117-131.

 

Commission of European Communities. 1990. Green Paper on the Urban Environment. European Commission, Brussels.

 

Crane, R.; Chatman, D.G. 2003. Traffic and Sprawl: Evidence from US Commuting, 1985 to 1997, Planning & Markets, 6(1): 14-22.

 

Department of the Environment. 1990. This Common Interitance. HMSO, London.

 

Department of the Environment. 1992. Development Plans and Regional Planning Guidance. PPG12, HMSO, London.

 

Department of the Environment. 1993. Sustainable Development: the UK Strategy. Cmnd 2426 HMSO, London.

 

Department of the Environment. 1994. Transport PPG13 HMSO, London.

 

Evill, B. 1995. Population, Urban Density and Fuel Use: Eliminating the Spurious Correlation, Urban Policy and Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08111149508551669, 13(1): 29-36.

 

Gomez-Ibanez, J.A. 1991. A Global View of Automobile Dependence, Journal of American Planning Association, 57: 376-379.

 

Gordon, P.; R ishardson, H.W. 1989. Gasoline Consumpt ion and Cit ies: A Reply, Journal of American Planning Association. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944368908975421, 55(3): 342-346.

 

Gilbert, R.; Pearl, A. 2010. Transport Revolutions. Moving People and Freight without Oil. Gabriola Island: New Societies Publishers.

 

Hester, R . 2006. Designing for Ecological Design. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

 

Holden, E.; Norland, I.T. 2005. Three Challenges for the Compact City as a Sustainable Urban Form: Household Consumption of Energy and Transport in Eight Residential Areas in the Greater Oslo Region, Urban Studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980500332064, 42(12): 2145-2166.

 

Hughes, B.; Chambers, L.; Lansdell, H.; White, R. 2004. Cities, Area and Transport Energy, Road Transportation Research Journal, 13(2): 72-84.

 

Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B. 1999a. An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities 1960-1990. University Press of Colorado.

 

Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B. 1999b. Patterns of Automobile Dependence in Cities: an International Overview of Key Physical and Economic Dimentions with some Implications for Urban Policy, Transportation Research Part A, 33(1999): 691-723.

 

Kirwan, R . 1992. Urban Form, Energ y and Transport: A Note on the Newman-Kenworthy Thesis, Urban Policy and Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08111149208551480, 10(1): 6-22.

 

Masoumi, H.E. 2012. Urban Sprawl in Iranian Cities and its Difference with the Western Sprawl, Spatium International Review, 27: 12-18.

 

Masoumi, H.E. 2014. Urban Sprawl in Mid-sized Cities of MENA, Evidence from Yazd and Kashan in Central Iran, Management Research and Practice, 6(2): 25-41.

 

Naess, P. 1993. Transportation Energy in Swedish Towns and Regions, Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02815739308730340, 10(4): 187-206.

 

Naess, P. 1995. Urban Form and Energy Use for Transport: A Nordic Experience. PhD dissertation. Norwegian Institute of Technology.

 

Naess, P.; Sandberg, S.L.; Roe, P.G. 1996. Energy Use for Transportation in 22 Nordic Towns, Scandinavian Housing & Planning Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02815739608730401, 13(2): 79-97.

 

Nakamura, R.; Horiike, T. 2002. Effects of Urban Form and Urban Planning on Household Gasoline Consumption by City, City Planning Review, 235: 54-64.

 

National Physical Planning Agency. 1991. Summary of the Fourth Report Extra on Physical Planning. Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, The Hague.

 

Neuman, M. 2005. The Compact City Fallacy, Journal of Planning Education and Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739456X04270466, 25(1): 11-26.

 

Newman, P.; Kenworthy, J. 1989. Cities and Automobile Dependence, an International Sourcebook. Gower Publishing Co., England.

 

Ogawa, M.; Yamada, H. 2002. Urban Structure, Automobile Use and Gasoline Consumption, Expressway and Automobiles, 45(10): 27-36.

 

Owens, S. 1986. Energy Planning and Urban Form. London: Pion.


Quoted IJTTE Works



Related Keywords